21 10 2009

















Color Balance/Tone Balance:4

Center of Interest:4


Subject Matter:4

Print Quality:4


Storytelling Quality:3

Print Presentation:4

Total Score:45/12=3.75


Chicago Marathon

21 10 2009







Chicago Marathon












Color Balance/Tone Balance:4

Center of Interest:3


Subject Matter:3

Print Quality:4


Storytelling Quality:4

Print Presentation:3

Total Score:41



Work Out Fail

14 10 2009

Exit Fail

14 10 2009

Obama Health Care Bill

14 10 2009

Iowa Freedom Of Expression Act

14 10 2009

 Iowa Student Free Expression Law

Citation: Iowa Code Sec. 280.22

May 11, 1989

Summary: In addition to the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, states can provide additional free speech protection their own citizens by enacting state laws or regulations. The Iowa Student Free Expression Law is such a provision and provides student journalists attending Iowa public high schools with added protection against administrative censorship.

Section 280.22 — Student exercise of free expression1. Except as limited by this section, students of the public schools have the right to exercise freedom of speech, including the right of expression in official school publications.

2. Students shall not express, publish, or distribute any of the following:

    a. Materials which are obscene.

    b. Materials which are libelous or slanderous under chapter 659.

    c. Materials which encourage students to do any of the following:

        (1) Commit unlawful acts.

        (2) Violate lawful school regulations.

        (3) Cause the material and substantial disruption of the orderly operation of the school.

3. There shall be no prior restraint of material prepared for official school publications except when the material violates this section.

4. Each board of directors of a public school shall adopt rules in the form of a written publications code, which shall include reasonable provisions for the time, place, and manner of conducting such activities within its jurisdiction. The board shall make the code available to the students and their parents.

5. Student editors of official school publications shall assign and edit the news, editorial, and feature content of their publications subject to the limitations of this section. Journalism advisers of students producing official school publications shall supervise the production of the student staff, to maintain professional standards of English and journalism, and to comply with this section.

6. Any expression made by students in the exercise of free speech, including student expression in official school publications, shall not be deemed to be an expression of school policy, and the public school district and school employees or officials shall not be liable in any civil or criminal action for any student expression made or published by students, unless the school employees or officials have interfered with or altered the content of the student speech or expression, and then only to the extent of the interference or alteration of the speech or expression.

7. “Official school publications” means material produced by students in the journalism, newspaper, yearbook, or writing classes and distributed to the student body either free or for a fee.

8. This section does not prohibit a board of directors of a public school from adopting otherwise valid rules relating to oral communications by students upon the premises of each school.

Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier

14 10 2009

Hazelwood School District et al. v. Kuhlmeier et al., 484 U.S. 260 (1988) was a United States Supreme Court decision which held that public school curricular student newspapers that have not been established as forums for student expression are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection than independent student expression or newspapers established (by policy or practice) as forums for student expression. It was decided on January 13, 1988 in favor of Hazelwood School District, overruling a Court of Appeals reversal of a District Court ruling. Essentially, the court ruled in favor of the Hazelwood School District, the justices believing that the censorship did not violate the student’s First Amendment rights of free speech.The U.S. Supreme Court held for the first time that public school officials may impose some limits on what appears in school-sponsored student publications.  The high school paper was published as part of a journalism class. The principal at Hazelwood usually reviewed the school paper before it was published, and in this case he deleted two pages that had been written for the next edition of the school paper.

One of the deleted articles covered the issue of student/teen pregnancy and included interviews with three students who had become pregnant while attending school. (There was also an article about several students whose parents had been divorced, however the students’ names were not disclosed in the article.) To keep the students’ identity secret, the staff used pseudonyms instead of the students’ names. The principal said he felt the anonymity of the students was not sufficiently protected and that the girls’ discussion of their use or non-use of birth control was inappropriate for some of the younger students.